Stuart R. Hameroff, MD

Director, Center for Consciousness Studies

Emeritus Professor, Department of Anesthesiology

Emeritus Professor, Department of Psychology

Link to PUB      





Medical School: 
1973: Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Anesthesiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

Stuart Hameroff, Research Website:

UA Department of Anesthesiology:  Consciousness Research/Hameroff

Center for Consciousness Studies/TSC:


Stuart Hameroff MD grew up in Cleveland, Ohio, working summers at Republic Steel and Cleveland Stadium. At the University of Pittsburgh in the late 1960s, he studied chemistry, physics and the mind/body problem. In medical school in the early 1970s at Hahnemann Medical College in Philadelphia, Hameroff became interested in microtubules, polymers of the protein ‘tubulin’, and major components of the cytoskeleton within living cells. Comparing their dynamic lattice structure to computer matrices, he began to propose that microtubules processed information inside brain neurons, and were the source of intelligence at the biomolecular level. Choosing an academic career combining clinical medicine and research, Hameroff trained in anesthesiology at the University of Arizona Medical Center in Tucson, Arizona, and joined the faculty there in 1977, a position he still holds as emeritus professor and practicing anesthesiologist. His research has included mechanisms by which anesthetic gases erase consciousness and prevent memory, and further studies of information processing in microtubules. In the mid 1990s Hameroff teamed with famed British physicist Sir Roger Penrose to develop a quantum theory of consciousness based on microtubules, a controversial proposal (recent work has shown that anesthetics act via microtubules inside neurons).

Beginning in 2009, the team of Anirban Bandyopadhyay and colleagues at the National Institute of Material Sciences in Tsukuba, Japan began to show vibrational resonances in microtubules in the megahertz frequency range. Hameroff concluded that microtubule megahertz vibrations supported information processing, cognition and consciousness in the brain. Recognizing megahertz mechanical vibrations as ultrasound, commonly used in clinical anesthesiology for imaging, and aware of noninvasive brain therapies such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and transcranial electrical (e.g. direct current) stimulation (tDCS), Hameroff found that work by WJ Tyler and others had shown that transcranial ultrasound (TUS) caused behavioral and electrophysiological effects in animals. Using a clinical ultrasound imaging device (GE Logiq) at low intensity, sub-thermal levels, Hameroff and colleagues then did the first TUS human study on mood and mental states in chronic pain patients, published in 2012 in Brain Stimulation. He then collaborated with University of Arizona Psychologists John JB Allen and Jay Sanguinetti to do several followup TUS studies on healthy volunteers, showing TUS to right fronto-temporal cortex improves mood, that vertex stimulation aimed at anterior cingulate cortex can have profound effects (uncontrolled laughter, meditative states, ‘out-of-body’ experiences) and that TUS elicits gamma synchrony EEG near the stimulation site.

Hameroff also has collaborated with neuroscientist Sourav Ghosh (and student Uma Raman) to test ultrasound effects on rat embryonic cortical neurons, showing significant increase in neurite sprouting, suggesting TUS could be helpful in neuronal repair and synaptic formation after TBI. This suggested clinical trials of TUS on TBI as described in the present pre-application proposal. In collaboration with biophysicists Jack Tuszynski at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, and Travis Craddock at Nova Southeastern University in Ft Lauderdale, Florida, Hameroff also proposed that microtubules encode memory from synaptic inputs by the holoenzyme CaMKII. He further suggested psychotherapy, including for PTSD, could involve TUS-based stimulation of microtubule vibrational mechanisms to over-write traumatic memories. 

In addition to clinical and research roles, Hameroff is Director of the Center for Consciousness Studies at the University of Arizona, and co-organizes, with philosopher David Chalmers, the well-known ‘Toward a Science of Consciousness’ conferences. He is a perennial selection for ‘Best Doctors in Tucson’, where he has lived and worked for 40 years. He received the first Rustum Roy award at Deepak Chopra’s ‘Sages and Scientists’ conference in 2010. Hameroff has written or edited 5 books and over a hundred scientific articles. He appeared in the film ‘WhattheBleep?’, and in numerous TV shows about consciousness on BBC, PBS, Discovery, and History Channel. His research website is

Honors & Awards: 

Best Doctors in America - Pacific Region (neuroanesthesia); Woodward/White independent survey 1996/1997, 1997/1998, 2000/2001, 2003/2004, 2013

Penrose-Hameroff 'Orch OR' model listed as one of six theories of consciousness, World Book of Science 2000

Penrose-Hameroff 'Orch OR' model featured in 'The Scientist': "Consciousness Studies - an Emerging Discipline?" Related to consciousness research:  BBC, PBS, Discovery Channel, Through the Wormhole, and several documentary films, radio interviews and popular magazine features (Discover, Scientific American)

Research Interests: 

Consciousness studies, quantum mechanical/general relativity approaches to consciousness, protein conformational dynamics, molecular mechanisms of anesthetic gas molecules, information processing in cytoskeletal microtubules, quantum information science, essential features of living systems, nanotechnology, nanomedicine, philosophical pan-protopsychism, coherence and decoherence.


Current Research Projects:

UA Dept of Anesthesiology Research Page/Consciousness Research 

Dr. Stuart Hameroff ‘s research projects are potentially open to resident involvement time permitting. 

  • Good Vibrations - Transcranial Ultrasound

  • Tuning the Brain-updating...

Representative Publications: 

Nov 17 Biosketch_Hameroff.pdf


In preparation

1. Uma Raman, Saatviki Gupta, Sara Parker , Nandita Gupta, Arun Kumar Gupta, Chris Duffield, Sourav Ghosh, Stuart Hameroff   (2014).   Low-intensity ultrasound (US) stabilizes microtubules and promotes neurite outgrowth  [in preparation]

2. Sanguinetti, JL, Smith E, Allen JJB, Hameroff, S (2014). Transcranial Ultrasound (TUS) Affects Mood in Healthy Human Volunteers.  Brain Stimulation. [in preparation]


In press

  1. Travis J. A. Craddock, Stuart R. Hameroff, Ahmed T. Ayoub, Mariusz Klobukowski, and Jack A. Tuszynski (2014). Anesthetics act in quantum channels in brain microtubules to prevent consciousness.  Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry  [in press]
  1. Craddock J.A. Travis, Friesen D, Mane J, Hameroff SR, Tuszynski JA, The Feasibility of Coherent Energy Transfer in Microtubules (2014)  Journal of the Royal Society Interface. [in press]
  1. Sanguinetti JL, Smith E, Allen John JB, Hameroff S, Human Brain Stimulation with Transcranial Ultrasound: Potential Applications for Mental Health. Bioelectromagnetic and Subtle Energy Medicine, 2nd edition, CRC Press, pp 355-360  [in press]



  1. Hameroff S, Penrose R. Consciousness in the universe: A review of the 'Orch OR' theory. Phys Life Rev, 2014; Mar 11(1):39-78.
  2. Hameroff S, Penrose R, Reply to Seven Commentaries on “Consciousness in the Universe: Review of the ‘Orch OR’ theory".  Physics of Life Reviews, 2014; 11:94–100.
  3. Hameroff S, Penrose R, Reply to Criticism of the 'Orch OR qubit' - Orchestrated objective reduction is scientifically jusfiied. Physics of Life Reviews, 2014; 11(1):104-112
  4. Consciousness, microtubules, & 'Orch OR': A space-time odyssey, Hameroff  S, 2014; The Journal of Consciousness Studies, 21(3-4)126-153.
  5. 'HOT to DOT’ – A ‘Deeper order thought’ theory of consciousness, S. Hameroff, P. Pylkkanen, R. Gennaro , Chapter 15 in: Brain, Mind, Cosmos: The Nature of Our Existence and the Universe (Sages and Scientists Series Book 1) [Kindle Edition] Edited by Deepak Chopra; 2014.
  6. Hameroff S, Quantum walks in brain microtubules-a biomolecular basis for quantum cognition? Top Cogn Sci, 2014; Jan; 6(1):91-7.
  7. Hameroff SR, Quantum mathematical cognition requires quantum brain biology: the "Orch OR" theory.  Behav Brain Sci, 2013; Jun; 36(3):287-90. 
  8. Hameroff S, Comment on: Capolupo, Freeman, Vitiello, A tale of two fields: comment on "Dissipation of 'dark energy' by cortex in knowledge retrieval"  Phys Life Rev, 2013; Mar;10(1):95-6; discussion 112-6.
  9. Hameroff S, Trakas M, Duffield C, Annabi E, Gerace MB, Boyle P, Lucas A, Amos Q, Buadu A, Badal JJ. Transcranial ultrasound (TUS) effects on mental states: a pilot study. Brain Stimul, 2013; May;6(3):409-15.
  10.  Hameroff, S, How quantum brain biology can rescue conscious free will. Front Integr Neurosci, 2012; 6:93, Oct 12
  11.  Craddock T, St George M, Freedman H, Barakat K, Damaraju S, Hameroff S, Tuszynski J,  Computational Predictions of Volatile Anesthetic Interactions with the Microtubule Cytoskeleton: Implications for Side Effects of General Anesthesia, PLOS One, 2012; June 25
  12.  Craddock Travis, JA, Marc St. George, Holly Freedman, Khaled Barakat, Sambasivarao Damaraju, Stuart Hameroff, Jack A Tuszynski, Computational Predictions of Volatile Anesthetic Interactions with the Microtubule Cytoskeleton: Implications for Side Effects of General Anesthesia, PLoS, 2012;  June 25PLoS ONE 7(6): e37251. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037251
  13. Craddock TJ, Tuszynski JA, Chopra D, Casey N, Goldstein LE, Hameroff SR, Tanzi RE, The Zinc Dyshomeostasis Hypothesis of Alzheimer's Disease,  PLoS One, 2012; March 23 7(3).
  14. Craddock T, Tuszynski J, Hameroff S., Cytoskeletal Signaling: Is Memory Encoded in Microtubule Lattices by CaMKII Phosphorylation?  PLoS Computational Biology, 2012; March 8
  15. Ebner, M, Hameroff, S.,  Lateral information processing by spiking neurons: a theoretical model of the neural correlate of consciousness.Comput Intell Neurosci, 2011; Oct 23
  16. Hameroff SR, Craddock TJ, Tuszynski JA."Memory bytes" - molecular match for CaMKII phosphorylation encoding of microtubule lattices. J Integr Neurosci, 2010; Sep;9(3):253-67.
  17. Hameroff S. The "conscious pilot"-dendritic synchrony moves through the brain to mediate consciousness.  J Biol Phys, 2010 Jan;36(1):71-93.
  18. Hameroff, SR.  The Brain Is Both Neurocomputer and Quantum Computer. Cogn Sci, 2007;  Nov 12;31(6):1035-45.
  19. Consciousness, Neurobiology and Quantum Mechanics: The Case for a Connection, In: The Emerging Physics of Consciousness, edited by Jack Tuszynski, Springer-Verlag, 2007. - link to pdf
  20. Hameroff SR., Anesthesiology.The entwined mysteries of anesthesia and consciousness: is there a common underlying mechanism? 2006; Aug;105(2):400-12
  21. Hameroff S, A new theory of the origin of cancer: Centrioles, mitosis and quantum entanglement submitted; 2004.
  22. Hameroff, SR Whitehead and Quantum Computation in the Brain: Panprotopsychism Meets the Physics of Fundamental Spacetime Geometry, S Hameroff, in Whitehead Process Network Compendium, ed M Weber; 2003.
  23. Hameroff S, Time, Consciousness and Quantum Events in Fundamental Spacetime Geometry In: The nature of time: Physics, geometry and perception - Proceedings of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop, ed R Buccheri and M Saniga; 2003.
  24. Hagan S, Hameroff S, Tuszynski J, Quantum Computation in Brain Microtubules? Decoherence and Biological Feasibility, Physical Reviews E, 2002; 65:061901.
  25. Hameroff S, Nip A, Porter M, Tuszynski J. Conduction pathways in microtubules, biological quantum computation, and consciousness. BioSystems, 2002; 64: 149-168.
  26. Woolf NJ, Hameroff S.  A quantum approach to visual consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2001; 5(11): 472-478.
  27. Hameroff S. Consciousness, the brain and spacetime geometry. Annals New York Academy of Sciences, 2001;  929:74-104.
  28. Hameroff S. Anesthesia: the “other side” of consciousness (Commentary on the papers of E. Roy John and colleagues). Consciousness and Cognition, 2001; 10: 217-229.
  29. Hameroff S.R. Quantum computation in brain microtubules? The Penrose-Hameroff "Orch OR" model of consciousness. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society London, 1998; (A)356:1869-1896.
  30. Hameroff S.R. Anesthesia, consciousness and hydrophobic pockets-a unitary quantum hypothesis of anesthetic action. Toxicology Letters, 1998; 100/101:31-39.
  31. Hameroff S.R., Penrose R. Conscious events as orchestrated space-time selections. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 1996; 3(1):36-53.
  32. Hameroff S.R., Penrose R. Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: a model for consciousness? Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 1996; 40:453-480.
  33. Hameroff S.R., Penrose R. Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: a model for consciousness? Neural Network World, 1995; 5:793-804.


Publications - CONTINUED

  • See Attached CV forFull List of Peer Reviewed Publications, Books, Ed, Authored


Nov 17 Biosketch_Hameroff.pdf



Stuart Hameroff's research website: Quantum Consciousness 

Stuart Hameroff's Link to PUB - Search Terms: SR Hameroff, Stuart Hameroff, Stuart R. Hameroff



1. Hameroff, SR, Ultimate Computing: Biomolecular Consciousness and NanoTechnology, Elsevier-North Holland, Amsterdam (1987)
2. Koruga DL, Hameroff SR, Withers J, Loutfy R, Sundareshan M. C60 Fullerene--From Nanobiology to Nanotechnology. Elsevier-North Holland, Amsterdam (1993)
3. Hameroff SR, Kaszniak AW & Scott AC, (Eds), Toward a Science of Consciousness: The First Tucson Discussions and Debates, MIT Press/Bradford Books, Cambridge, MA (1996)
3. Hameroff SR, Kaszniak AW & Scott AC, (Eds), Toward a Science of Consciousness II: The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates, MIT Press/Bradford Books, Cambridge, MA, (1998)
4. Hameroff SR, Kaszniak AW & Chalmers D, (Eds), Toward a Science of Consciousness III: The Third Tucson Discussions and Debates, MIT Press/Bradford Books, Cambridge, MA (1999)



Roger Penrose, Stuart Hameroff, Henry Stapp, Deepak Chopra, Consciousness and the Universe, Quantum Physics, Evolution, Brain & Mind, Cosmology Science Publishers  (2011).

Moreira-Almeida, Alexander, Santos, Franklin Santana (eds), Exploring Frontiers of the Mind-Brain Relationship (Mindfulness in Behavioral Health) Springer  (2011).

Hameroff S, "Consciousness, free will and quantum brain biology - The 'Orch OR' Theory", in De Gruyter, (2014) Quantum Physics Meets the Philosophy of Mind. New Essays on the Mind-Body Relation to Quantum-Theoretical Perspective.  Ed. by Corradini, Antonella  University of Milan and Uwe Meixner, University of Augsburg, Philosophical Analysis Series 56, pp 99-134 (2014).



2014 Bhaumik Foundation - Toward a Science of Consciousness TSC-20th Anniversary Conference
2011 Rustum Roy Award, Chopra Foundation
2011 Institute of Noetic Sciences, TUS Pilot Study
2011 USAF-AFOSR - Toward a Science of Consciousness, 2011 TSC-Stockholm Conference, European Office - Aerospace R-D; Asian Office of Aerospace R&D
2005 YeTaDeL Foundation Award
2003 Samueli Foundation Award for 2003 Quantum Mind conference
1998-2001 Fetzer Institute Award to establish the Center for Consciousness Studies at the University of Arizona
1990-1991 National Science Foundation (NSF) Solitons in biomolecules (Co-PI with Alwyn Scott, PhD)
1982 Pfizer-Roerig - Effects of doxepin on chronic pain



Co-Chair of the biennial Tucson Conference Series (1994-present) and the alternating overseas TSC with collaborating university and research groups.  Tucson, Arizona: 1994, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014 – Overseas; 1995 Ischia, Italy;  1997, Elsinore, Denmark; 1999, Tokyo, Japan;  2001, Skovde, Sweden; 2003,  Prague, Czech Republic; 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2007 Vienna, Austria; 2007, Budapest, Hungary; 2009, Hong Kong, China; 2011, Stockholm, Sweden;  2013, Agra, India; 2015 TSC will take place in Helsinki, Finland

Quantum Approaches to understanding the Mind, Flagstaff 1999, Organizer “Quantum Mind 2003: Consciousness, quantum physics and the brain”; 2006



BioSystems, Journal of Consciousness Studies



American Society of Anesthesiologists

Association of University Anesthesiologists

Society for Neuroscience

Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness





  1. Toward a Science of Consciousness-Helsinki, June 9-13, 2015   Helsinki, Finland



  1.  Neuroscience 2014  SfN-Society for Neuroscience, November 15-19, 2014, Washington, DC - Ultrasound promotes neurite outgrowth-Implications for TBI - U.Raman, S.Parker, C.Duffield, S.Ghosh, *S. R. Hameroff - Nov 18, 2014, 486.07 - Nanosymposium- 486. Traumatic Brain Injury: Therapeutic Strategies I - Nov 18, 2014
  2. Sages & Scientists, Science and Consciousness Panel,  Hameroff, S., Quantum Brain Music: How Molecular Vibrations Make You "Feel All Right", August 23, 2014 Carlsbad, CA  
  3. Redwood Center for Theoretical Neuroscience, Hameroff S.,'Tuning The Brain’–Treating Mental States Through Microtubule Vibrations, June 11, 2014, UC-Berkeley Video
  4. Toward a Science of Consciousness (TSC) 20th Anniversary, April 21-26, 2014 Tucson, Arizona, Co-Chair TSC 
  5.  2014 TSC Abstracts pdf   TSC Website    Plenary Video TSC2014  - Plenary Speaker PL 9, Quantum Vibrations in Microtubules - "Orch Or"- 20 Years On, April 25, 2014;  M.E.Tegmark, Consciousness as a State of Matter; Stuart Hameroff, Quantum Vibrations In Microtubules - 'Orch Or'-20 Years On;  Anirban Bandyopadhyay, Opening "Pandora's Box": Direct Measurement of Microtubule Bundle Resonance in a Live Neuronal Axon Suggests Scale-Invariant Brain Dynamics Extends Inside Neurons  Video
  6. Pre-Conference Workshop: Microtubules and Quantum Biology, April 21, 2014, Roger Penrose, Jack Tuszynski, Travis Craddock, Anirban Banyopadhyay, Stuart Hameroff Quantum Vibrations in Microtubules Support the Controversial Orch OR theory, and Provide a Basis for  EEG as ‘Beat Frequencies’ of Intra-Neuronal Dynamics
  7. Brain Mapping Symposium, April 24, 2014 - The Human Brain Project: Unifying Our Understanding of the Human Brain:  Henry Markram, Christof Koch, Anirban Bandyopadhyay, Stuart Hameroff, symposium chair, College of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, UMC Duval Auditorium, Sponsored by the Center for Consciousness Studies (archived)     Brain Mapping Symposium, TSC 2014 - video       Brain Mapping Symposium, TSC 2014 - iTunes – Video
  8. Behind and Beyond the Brain: Mind-Matter Interactions,10th Symposium of the Bial Foundation, March 26-29, 2014, Lisbon, Portugal, Casa do Médico - Porto, S. Hameroff, Keynote, Consciousness, Microtubules and Quantum Nonlocality - The 'Orch OR' theory
  9. Humanities, Medicine & Wellness Conference - 'Science, Healthcare and Healing' - Feb 28, 2014, University of Arizona, S. Hameroff,  moderator and respondent
  10. The Brainstorm Sessions, January 2014, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Orch OR theory - Microtubules and the Great Debate about Consciousness, The Flemish Arts Centre De Brakke Grond and UvA Amsterdam Brain & Cognition Center (ABC) "Night of the Brain"   Penrose, Bandyopadhyay & Hameroff Lezing: Microtubuli & het grote debat over het bewustzijn   Programme
  11. Quantum and Nanosystems Conference, November/December 2013, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, India, S.R. Hameroff, Orch OR theory
  12. Neuroscience, 2013, Society for Neuroscience, November 14, 2013 - San Diego, California
  13. Transcranial Ultrasound (‘TUS’) an Optimal Non-Invasive Brain-Machine Interface via Microtubules? SR Hameroff, JL Sanguinetti, C Duffield, U Raman, S Ghosh, S Parker, QD Amos, JJB Allen
  14. Debate on ‘Molecular mechanisms of anesthesia’ Session Title: Do Anesthetics Act on Neuronal Surface Membranes, or Internal Cytoplasm?  A Debate on the role of Claude Bernard’s theory for contemporary  research into anesthetic mechanisms. Hameroff, S., ‘Claude Bernard is Still Correct: Anesthetics Act in Neuronal Cytoplasmic Interiors’
  15. American Society of Anesthesiologists Annual Meeting, October 11-15, 2013, San Francisco, CA, S. Hameroff, Debate on ‘Molecular Mechanisms of Anesthesia’    pdf program book
  16. Sages and Scientists Symposium, August 16-18, 2013, Carlsbad, California, S. Hameroff, ‘Consciousness and the Anthropic Principle’-Video
  17. Global Future 2045, June 15-16, 2013, New York, S. Hameroff: Microtubules and Quantum Consciousness; R. Penrose: The Quantum Nature of Consciousness
  18. Interviews with Stuart Hameroff -  Video  and  Sir Roger Penrose –Video
  19. Catholic University of Milan, Quantum Physics Meets the Philosophy of Mind, June 4-6, 2013, Milan Italy, S. Hameroff, Quantum Physics Meets the Philosophy of Mind, S. Hameroff, R. Penrose, Quantum Physics and Consciousness: The Penrose-Hameroff “Orch OR” Theory
  20. Toward a Science of Consciousness-Agra, March 2013, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra, India    Link to abstracts.pdf -  TSC 2013, Agra ; Keynote,  S. Hameroff, Workshop, Consciousness in the Universe, Review of Orch OR Theory
  21. Redwood Center for Theorectical Neuroscience, University of California, Berkeley, January 9, 2013, Stuart Hameroff, Quantum Cognition and Brain Microtubules-Video
  22. ASSC, July 12-16, 2003, San Diego, Deeper Order Thought Theory of Consciousness
  23. TedX Tucson,  S. Hameroff, The Future of Consciousness, December 12, 2012 –Video
  24. The 9th Swiss Biennial on Science, Technics and Aesthetics, Lucerne, Switzerland Keynote, S. Hameroff, March 31 - April 1, 2012, "Penrose-Hameroff Orch OR Theory. Current Status, Criticisms and Future Directions -pdf. Programme
  25. QANSAS 2011, Agra, India, Quantum and Nanocomputing Systems, Quantum and Nano Computing Systems Centre (QANCENTRE), December 1-4, 2011
  26. Toward a Science of Consciousness, Stockholm 2-8 May, 2011, Link to 2011 TSC Abstracts
  27. Hameroff, S  Meyer-Overton Meets Quantum Physics: Consciousness, Memory and Anesthetic Binding in Tubulin Hydrophobic Channels [131] - Anesthesia Plenary 13
  28. TEDx Brussels, 2010 -   Do We Have a Quantum Soul, S. Hameroff -  Video 
  29. GOOGLE Inc, Lecture at Google Headquarters, Mountain View: A New Marriage of Brain and Computer - Why 'The Singularity" Is Bogus (YouTube) 2010     -    Slide Show  - "A New Marriage of Brain and Computer",  YouTube/GoogleTalksArchive-Video


Requests for interviews

contact: Abi Behar-Montefiore,, 520-621-9317; text/cell: 520-247-5785